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The fall of Ottoman Empire

The fall of Ottoman Empire

The decline of the Ottoman Empire 1174-1914 — Ottoman Empire, Spain, France, Switzerland, Austria, Bosnia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Italy, Albania, Hungary, Turkey, Syria, Cyprus, Crete, Arabia, Iraq, Russia, Georgia, Egypt, Israel, Libya, Tunisia. Place of publication not identified: Maps.com, 1999. Internet resource.

The article outlines the factors which led to the fall of the Ottoman and states that both internal and external factors contributed the decline. It began with economic and political instability in the Empire especially during the 1683 Battle of Vienna. It became the main set back to the Ottomans who were ambitious. Another reason that led to the fall of the empire was lack of military knowledge in comparison to the other European nations. The article is important to the study as it explains the genesis of the decline and takes us through the steps in a systematic manner.

Gocek, Fatma M. Rise of the Bourgeoisie, Demise of Empire: Ottoman Westernization and Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Internet resource. Retreaved from. http://psi424.cankaya.edu.tr/uploads/files/Gocek,%20Rise%20of%20Bourgeoisie.PDF

Gocek describes how westernization and social change caused the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The first social change was the death of the famous Ottoman Empire Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. It caused chaos in the empire as the sultan who took over was corrupt and it changed the entire territory causing resistance. The sultan also got ambitious and welcomed enemies without knowing as he wanted to benefit from the gold and silver.

İslamoğlu-İnan, Huri.The Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print. Retrieved from. http://www.beck-shop.de/fachbuch/leseprobe/9780521526074_Excerpt_001.pdf

The article explores the economic factors which led to the fall of the empire. The Ottoman were the leaders of trade in the East region, and it forced the European nations to look for trade routes, making friends with others people who weakened the empire economically yet it had a vast region to support. The introduction of silver and gold led to inflation in the economy making it unable to lead those under leadership.

Itzkowitz, Norman. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. Chicago (Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Print. Retrieved from. https://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-8.1-Ottoman-Empire.pdf

The article explains thet Muslims mostly inhabited the Ottoman, but due to trade interactions, they had to interact with people from other places, and it changed the perspective of most people, and it caused chaos in the nation. The Ottoman people were introduced to new ways of life and their need to explore more led to supporting the western nations which later took over the empire.

Jochmus, August, and Georg M. Thomas. The Syrian War and the Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1840-1848, in Official and Confidential Reports, Documents, and Correspondences with Lord Palmerston, Lord Ponsonby, and the Turkish Authorities. Berlin, 1883. Print. Retrieved from. https://archive.org/stream/syrianwaranddec00jochgoog/syrianwaranddec00jochgoog_djvu.txt

The articles examine how the Turkish authorities were able to dupe the Ottoman leaders which led to taking over the empire and that is how it fell. The Syrians had won over the Ottoman citizens due to the collaboration and trade links and the support in the war weakened the empire. After the 1571 Lepanto Battle, it was discovered that the Ottoman Empire would be defeated and Turkey targeted it.

Kinross, Patrick B. The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow, 1979. Print.

When the western nations gained interest in the East, they threatened the power of the Ottoman Empire. They introduced technological changes from the Industrial Revolution which the Ottoman could not match. They also brought their way of life which attracted the local people, and they offered support to the Spanish and Turkey which later led to the fall of the empire. The death of the Suleiman of Magnificent led to chaos in the nation.

Shaw, Stanford J, and Ezel K. Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Vol.1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Print. Retrieved from. http://elibrary.bsu.az/books_400/N_387.pdf

According to Shaw and Ezel, Ottoman was still behind technologically in comparison to the western nations. They were advanced and had all the knowledge they required in technology. They thus had advanced weapons and well-trained military which the Ottoman could not match. The introduction of gold and silver also let to inflation in the empire, and it led to the failure of the economy.

Vryonis, Speros. Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Volume I. Empire of the Gazis, the Rise, and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, London, New York, Melbourne, 1976): A Critical Analysis. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1983. Print. Retrieved from https://ojs.lib.uom.gr/index.php/BalkanStudies/article/viewFile/16/15

The article states that the Arab revolt led to the fall of the Empire. The Servers treaty was the final blow to the empire. The empire and Turkey came and formed an agreement which let to Turkey taking over leadership in the empire. They introduce their way of life thus changing what people believed in. The Ottoman could not fight because they were facing a problem of the untrained military.

Work cited

Gocek, Fatma M. Rise of the Bourgeoisie, Demise of Empire: Ottoman Westernization and Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Internet resource.

İslamoğlu-İnan, Huri.The Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print.

Itzkowitz, Norman. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. Chicago (Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Print.

Jochmus, August, and Georg M. Thomas. The Syrian War and the Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1840-1848, in Official and Confidential Reports, Documents, and Correspondences with Lord Palmerston, Lord Ponsonby, and the Turkish Authorities. Berlin, 1883. Print.

Kinross, Patrick B. The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow, 1979. Print.

Shaw, Stanford J, and Ezel K. Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Vol.1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Print.

The decline of the Ottoman Empire 1174-1914 — Ottoman Empire, Spain, France, Switzerland, Austria, Bosnia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Italy, Albania, Hungary, Turkey, Syria, Cyprus, Crete, Arabia, Iraq, Russia, Georgia, Egypt, Israel, Libya, Tunisia. Place of publication not identified: Maps.com, 1999. Internet resource.

Vryonis, Speros. Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Volume I. Empire of the Gazis, the Rise, and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, London, New York, Melbourne, 1976): A Critical Analysis. Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1983. Print.

 

 

 

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