The French Revolution
Causes and results of the French Revolution
The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were defined by radical changes in the social, economic and political organizations of the world. The French revolution changed the economic, social and political direction of the French empire. The French revolution was characterized by political and social uprisings in France and her colonies (McPhee, 2016). Napoleon was one of the proponents of the French revolution where during this revolution, the monarchy French monarchy was ousted creating a republic that started violent time of political disorders.
According to McPhee (2016), the French revolution, characterized by radical and liberal ideas, changed the modern history of France setting the pace for global fall of absolute monarchies bringing into place liberal democracies and republics. The French revolution was started by several causes. To begin with, the French government of the day was in huge debts, and it was planning to revamp its economy through taxation schemes that were very unpopular. Prolonged bad harvests also sparked feelings of anger especially towards the elite groups (McPhee, 2016).
The rise of nationalism under the French revolution
The French revolution had a great impact on nationalism in France. The main pillars of the French nationalism were equality, liberty, and fraternity. The ideas of equality, liberty, and fraternity created expansionism making France want to expand her borders which she deemed as her natural borders (McPhee, 2016). The expansionist idea of the French nationalism would afterward conceive extreme patriotism among citizens who backed up wars of conquest, for example, the dramatic wins in the Battle of Fleurus.
On another front, the French foreign affairs became very successful with conquests on Belgium and the Netherlands making them provinces of France. German areas were also brought under control of the French government creating a puppet regime. Studies by McPhee (2016), reveal that conquering of Italy by Napoleon created the Kingdom of Italy where Napoleon instilled himself as the King. Because of these happenings, Napoleon was widely viewed as a national symbol, with the glory trickling down to his nephew who later became emperor.
Impacts of industrialization
The industrial revolution brought with it many changes both positive and negative. The changes were cutting across the social, economic, technological and cultural organization of societies (Allen, 2017). One of the most profound economic gains of the industrialization was improved living standards. The industrial revolution brought with it more jobs which increased disposable incomes of the workers enabling them to spend more money on the affordable products that were as a result of mass production improving standards of living.
On the social impacts, the industrial revolution brought with it the negativities of wage slavery, child labor, and bad working conditions. Factory owners went on a hunt for cheap unskilled labor which the children easily fit in as they worked at lower wages than adults and were easier to control.
Culturally, the industrial revolution created the popular culture where the modern life was characterized by seasons such as Christmas, spring renewal and the summer solstice which marked communal enjoyment. The culture of most people now living in the cities because of industrialization was now changed. However, the church took a different view of these cultural changes with the cultural changes being viewed as negative and affecting the previously conservative way of life.
Advancement of technology was another impact of the industrial revolution where power technology formed the basis of the revolution. Coal engines were designed that powered engines in the industries. It is on this development that the industrial revolution would grow and expand more rapidly across the globe.
Allen, R. C. (2017). The Industrial revolution: A very short introduction.
McPhee, P. (2016). Liberty or death: The French Revolution, 1789-1799. New Haven: Yale University Press.